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频谱管理:协调和载波聚合

Sameer戴夫
Sameer戴夫 首席技术官,Aircel印度

1.光谱协调:

频谱是所有国家都有公平祝福的一种自然资源。移动网络通过竞标过程或通过授予运行的许可证分配的频谱。在印度,类似全球的类似分配,WPC / DOT分配频谱。在全球范围内,ITU-R A标准机构建议并调节各种应用的频谱带。反过来,移动运营商使用分配的频谱频段,以在2G,3G和现在的4G承载中提供语音和数据服务。


一段时间以来,自从移动服务进入印度以来,运营商根据其业务战略和子基地扩张购买了相同或不同频段的频谱。这导致运营商拥有分片或“非连续”频谱;散布在同一条带上的是不受欢迎的。这样,大量的分散频谱造成了这一重要资源的低效率。
最重要的是,为了提供更快的数据速度和QoS,对更多频谱的不断需求要求印度监管机构——wpc / DOT对频谱进行永久管理。从运营商的角度来看,正是这些未使用的区域和防护带导致了效率低下和可避免的成本。此外,“释放”或协调这些大块的频谱将让政府拍卖,并为财政部赚取更多的收入。

一个很好的例子就是DOT采取了一项很好的举措来协调除1800 MHz频段以外的最流行的频谱。这一1800 MHz的协调过程使得该频段的连续频谱可用性达到了219.6 MHz,用于2016年及以后的频谱拍卖。由于其强大的4G - LTE服务能力,这一频段已经成为GSM的核心频段,仅次于优质的900 MHz。理想情况下,这个频带内的5mhz连续频谱是必需的,以提供高速数据。在这一点上,由交通部完成的协调过程是值得高度赞扬的。交通部确保所有拥有大量1800兆赫频带的移动运营商和国防服务部门都能回到桌子上——腾出未使用的位置,为了国家的更大利益协调这个频带。


这种统一的频谱分配具有许多优点。它最大限度地减少无线电干扰,提高客户体验,便于国际漫游,降低了手机/设备的制造成本。协调还导致整个频段的完全利用,导致频谱效率,增加无线电容量和降低网络成本。它还将使我们的国防服务能够使用下一个Gen Technologies使其通信基础设施现代化,这是通过DOT&Mod完成的这一关键运动的结果。

协调将为所有TSP带来显著的优势,他们现在可以进入这些空置的连续地点;因为我们运营商认为这是规划技术路线图和网络战略的大好机会。这一过程提供的清晰度将帮助我们提供高质量的数据速度,提高质量感知,并为数字印度故事提供一个坚实的平台。这激励我们运营商进入频谱管理的下一个阶段,将不同波段的频谱组合成我们所说的“载波聚合”特性。

2.载波聚合:

随着数据关税进一步合理化,未来的移动数据使用率将继续上升。印度用户基础和业务客户将继续与新的应用,内容和服务一起成长,这些内容和服务饥饿的数据。年轻人和移动用户现在正在消耗@ 1.4GB PM,我们很快就会看到这一步到4GB。鉴于此倾向消费,移动运营商寻找高效且经济高效的解决方案,以支持这种爆炸性数据的增长和不均匀的数据分布。始终如一,频谱将继续是一个限制因素。它昂贵和稀缺的本质将对网络工程师施加压力,以找到包含成本和协同频谱使用的新方法。


印度电信在多个乐队中获得了频谱或载波,因为它们的网络尺寸和命题增长;从2G移动到LTE - 两个TDD和FDD。鉴于大多数运营商在这一桶中,这绝望需要将这些载体结合起来并将它们缝成一个“单个织物”。作为一个解决方案,全球运营商正在采用载波聚合(CA)功能来组合载波。组合运营商的能力使这是一个有趣的操作员工具包。

CA是一种有效的工具,可以跨频带组合运营商分片频谱并提供更高的吞吐量,例如在4G LTE中组合频带5 (850 MHz)和频带40 (2300 TDD)。这反过来又增加了电池容量和网络效率,并显著改善了客户体验。CA使运营商能够最大化这些频谱投资的回报,并使用无执照的频谱来补充他们的投资组合。由于运营商聚合而增加的数据速率可以用来为突发应用(如网页浏览和视频流应用)获得更高的容量。CA的效率大于各部分的总和,因为它提供了非常理想的高无线电容量和增强的用户体验。

另一个好CA解决方案是印度角度的B3 B40 CA应用,因为它结合了1800 FDD和2300 TDD LTE载体。融合网络也有益于LTE FDD / TDD之间的互通。这将允许运营商同时在两个FDD和TDD运营商上无缝地提供移动宽带服务,使其大部分频谱投资产生积极,并提供增强的能力,提高消费者体验和QoS,导致更高的业务盈利能力。
根据3GPP- ts 36.101,一些印度特有的条带组合

FDD-FDD组合:

•B3 (1.8GHz FDD) + B5 (850MHz FDD)
•B3 (1.8GHz FDD) + B8 (900MHz FDD)


FDD-TDD组合:
•B8 900MHz FDD+ B40 2.3GHz TDD)
•B1 2.1GHz FDD + B3 1.8GHz FDD?+ B40?2.3GHz TDD
•B1 2.1GHz软驱+ B8 900MHz软驱?+ 3 ? 2.3 ghz TDD
•B3 1.8GHz软驱+ B8 900MHz软驱?+ 3 ? 2.3 ghz TDD

虽然网络CA特性已经为运营商准备就绪,但与CA特性相匹配的手机/设备准备就绪是一个问题。LTE设备生态系统通常滞后6-12个月。无线电和设备生态系统的协调对于LTE CA的成功实施至关重要。CA还被设计为一种未来的技术,通过ITU-R和GTI的倡议,将聚合扩展到更多的运营商,并允许聚合额外的许可频谱。我们相信,CA将在IMT-Advanced和新兴频谱分配的使用中发挥关键作用。然而,这个看似简单的概念将继续延伸到电信网络和设备领域。整个行业的强大和创造性协作,进一步创新和网络优化将推动CA成为主流技术特征。

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1. Spectrum Harmonization:<\/p>

Frequency spectrum is one natural resource which all countries have been blessed with equitably. Mobile networks work on spectrum allocated either through a bidding process or through licenses granted to operate. In India, akin to similar allocation throughout the globe, spectrum is allotted by the WPC\/ DOT. Globally, ITU-R a standards body recommends and regulates spectrum bands for various applications. In turn, Mobile operators use allotted spectrum bands to deliver voice and data services on 2G, 3G and now 4G bearers.<\/p>


Over a period of time, since mobile services made its presence in India, operators have purchased spectrum in the same or different bands depending on their business strategy and sub base expansion. This has led to operators owning fragmented or \u201cnon-contiguous\u201d spectrum; the ones spread across the same band are undesirable. Such, chunks of fragmented spectrum has created inefficiency of this vital resource.
To top it all, the incessant demand for more spectrums to provide faster data speeds and QoS calls for perpetual spectrum management by the Indian regulator-WPC\/ DOT. From the operator\u2019s standpoint, it is these chunks of unused spots & guard bands which have led to inefficiencies and avoidable costs. Also, the \u2018freeing\u2019 up or harmonization of these chunks of spectrum will let the government auction and earn more revenues for the exchequer.<\/p>

The case in point is the excellent initiative taken by the DOT to harmonize the popular and most sort after spectrum, the1800 MHz band. This 1800 MHz harmonization process has led to a contiguous spectrum availability of 219.6 MHz in this band, for spectrum auction in 2016 and beyond. This band has emerged as the core GSM band, just behind the premium 900 MHz, due to the prowess it has in its ability to provide 4G - LTE services. Ideally, 5 MHz contiguous spectrum in this band is mandatory to provide high speed data. This where, the harmonization process completed by DOT is highly commendable. DOT ensured that all mobile operators and defense services that held large parts of the 1800 MHz band to come to the table - vacate unused spots and harmonize the band in the larger interest of the nation.<\/p>


This uniform allocation of spectrum comes with many advantages. It minimizes radio interference, improves Customer experience, facilitates international roaming and reduces the manufacturing cost of phone\/devices. Harmonization also leads to the complete utilization of the entire band, leading to spectrum efficiency, increased radio Capacity and lowering of Network costs. It will also enable our Defense services to modernize their communication infrastructure with Next Gen technologies, this I see as a resultant of this crucial exercise completed by DOT & MOD.<\/p>

Harmonization will bring significant advantages to all TSP\u2019s who will now gain access to these vacated contiguous spots; as we operators foresee this as a big opportunity to plan our technology roadmap and Network strategy. The clarity provided by this process will help us to offer high quality data speeds, improve the Quality perception and provide a solid platform for the Digital India story. This inspires us operators to the next phase of spectrum management by combining spectrums in different bands into what we describe as \u2018Carrier Aggregation\u2019 features.<\/p>

2. Carrier Aggregation:<\/p>

Future mobile data usage will continue rising as data tariffs are further rationalized. The Indian Subscriber base and business customers will continue to grow with new applications, content and services which are data hungry. The young and mobile users are now consuming @ 1.4GB pm and we see this moving to 4GB pm soon. Given this propensity to consume, mobile operators hunt for efficient and cost-effective solutions to support this explosive data growth and uneven data distribution. As always, spectrum will continue to be a limiting factor. The very nature of it being expensive and scarce will put pressure on the Network engineers to find new means to contain costs and synergize spectrum usage.<\/p>


Indian Telco\u2019s have acquired spectrum or carriers in multiple bands as they grew their Network size and proposition; moving from 2G to LTE \u2013 both TDD and FDD. Given the fact that majority of the operators are in this bucket, there is this desperate need to combine these carriers and stitch them into a \u2018single fabric\u2019. As a solution, operators globally are adopting Carrier Aggregation (CA) features to combine carriers. The ability to combine carriers makes this an interesting toolkit for operators.<\/p>

CA is an effective tool to combine fragmented operator spectrum across bands and deliver higher throughputs, for instance combine band 5 (850 MHz) and band 40 (2300 TDD) for 4G LTE. This in turn increases cell capacity and network efficiency and improves the customer experience dramatically. CA enables operators to maximize the return on those spectrum investments, as well as use unlicensed spectrum to supplement their portfolios. Increased data rates due to carrier aggregation can be traded off to get higher capacity for bursty applications, such as web browsing and video streaming applications. CA efficiency is larger than the sum of the parts as it provides the much desired high radio capacity and enhanced user experience.<\/p>

Another good CA solution is the B3 B40 CA application from the Indian perspective as it combines the 1800 FDD and 2300 TDD LTE carriers. The converged network also benefits the Interworking between LTE FDD\/ TDD. This will allow operators to seamlessly offer Mobile Broadband services on both FDD and TDD carriers simultaneously, making the most of their spectrum investments positive and provide enhanced capacity and improve consumer experience and QoS, leading to higher business profitability.
Some India specific band combinations as per 3GPP- TS.36.101<\/p>

FDD-FDD combinations:<\/p>

\u2022 B3 (1.8GHz FDD) + B5 (850MHz FDD)
\u2022 B3 (1.8GHz FDD) + B8 (900MHz FDD)<\/p>


FDD-TDD combinations:
\u2022 B8 900MHz FDD+ B40 2.3GHz TDD)
\u2022 B1 2.1GHz FDD+ B3 1.8GHz FDD?+ B40?2.3GHz TDD
\u2022 B1 2.1GHz FDD+ B8 900MHz FDD?+ B40?2.3GHz TDD
\u2022 B3 1.8GHz FDD+ B8 900MHz FDD?+ B40?2.3GHz TDD<\/p>

While the network CA features are ready for operators to put them on field, the handsets\/ device readiness to match the CA features is an issue. The LTE device ecosystem generally lags by 6-12 months. The alignment of the radio and device ecosystem for a successful LTE CA implementation is crucial. CA has also been designed to be a future-proof technology, by extending aggregation to more carriers and enabling aggregation of additional licensed spectrum through the initiatives by ITU-R and GTI. We believe, CA will play a key role in enabling both IMT-Advanced and the use of emerging spectrum allocations. However, this seemingly simple concept will continue to stretch the realm of telecom networks and devices. Strong & creative collaboration across the industry for further innovation and network optimization will drive CA as a mainstream technology feature.<\/p>

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